CSAI

Corpus of Marginal Minaic Inscriptions


Jaussen and Savignac 1914: pls 34 (photo of the tomb), 77/32 (photo of the inscription), 103/32 (facsimile of the inscription)
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INSCRIPTION INFORMATION

LanguageAncient South Arabian » Minaic » Marginal Minaic
AlphabetAncient South Arabian
Script typologyMonumental writing
Writing techniqueIncision
Measure of letters3
Chronology
PeriodB

GENERAL NOTES

Facsimiles of the text (though not clear) also in Müller, David H. 1889: pl. IX/858; Euting 1896 (or second edition of 1914: 242); Mordtmann 1897: 57, no. XXXVI. For an exhaustive biliography of the text since its first publication see Müller, Walter W. 1988 b: 624.

TEXT


   1  Hnʾ bn Whbʾl
   2  ḏ-Mlḥ hn b-ḫṭʾt-N—
   3  krḥ w-Wd ʾḥl{ḏy}((ʾḥl{ḏ}y))
   4  ḏ-ynql qbrn ʿmr
   5  ḫrfn w-ʾrḫn

Apparatus
2aberrant writing of the last letters ʾ and n.
3all the editors consider ʾḥlḏy as a dittography for ʾḥly (but note that also ʾḥl is well attested in Minaic), while Jamme as ʾḥd-lḏy, with an assimilation of d to l.

TRANSLATIONS

English

   1  Hnʾ, son of Whbʾl
   2  ḏ-Mlḥ, as (?) they are under the sin of
   3  Nkrḥ and Wd the goods
   4  of the one who digs the tomb, for the duration
   5  of the years and the months.
Two different interpretations of the text are possible. One is the traditional curse against the profanation of the tomb: "may be struck by the sin of the gods the properties of anyone who damages the tomb"; in this case, NQL would have the common Semitic meaning "remove". The other one is a sort of "protection formula" for the tomb: "they are protected by the sin of the gods the properties of the one (Hnʾ) who dug the tomb"; in this case, NQL has the typical South Arabian meaning "excavate".
German

   1  Haniʾ, der Sohn des Wahabʾil,
   2  von der Sippe Malich. Siehe zum Sündopfer an
   3  Nakraḥ und Wadd (verfallen) die Güter
   4  dessen, der das Grab verändert, für die Dauer
   5  der Jahre und Monate.
1-2"hn wie hebräisch hēn 'siehe' ", "ḫṭʾt wie hebräisch ḫaṭāʾāh bzw. ḫaṭṭāʾt 'Sündopfer'" (Müller, Walter W. 1988 b).
Müller, Walter W. 1988 b: 625Müller, Walter W. 1988. Altsüdarabische und frühnordarabische Grab-, Sarkophag-, Votiv- und Bauinschriften. Pages 621-640 in Christel Butterweck (ed.). Grab-, Sarg-, Votiv- und Bauinschriften. Religiöse Texte. 4. Otto Kaiser (ed.), Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments. 2. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn.
English

   1  Haniʾ, son of Wahabʾl,
   2  he of (the group) Mulâḥ. May be abject among the offenders of Na-
   3  kraḥ and Wadd anyone
   4  who would smash the tomb to pieces during the duration of
   5  the years and the months.
Jamme 1974 b: 100Jamme, Albert W.F. 1974. Miscellanées d'ancient arabe VII. Washington. 2019/07/22; https://cuislandora.wrlc.org/islandora/object/cuislandora%3A205580#page/1/mode/1up. [Privately printed]

OBJECT INFORMATION

Support typeRock inscription
Measuresh. 18, w. 33
Link to object record

ORIGIN AND PROVENANCE

Origin and provenance
Modern siteal-ʿUlā (Khuraiba cliff)
Ancient siteDdn
Geographical areaḤijāz
CountrySaudi Arabia
FoundIn situ
Archaeological contextFunerary context: Tomb A-2
NotesThe inscription is written above the entrance of the tomb.
Link to site record

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Jaussen and Savignac 1914: 304-307, pls LXXVII/32, CIII/32 (facsimile)Jaussen, Antonin J. and Savignac, M. Raphael 1914. Mission archéologique en Arabie. II. El-ʿEla, d'Hégra à Teima, Harrah de Tebouk. (Publications de la Société française des fouilles archéologiques, 2). Paris: Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner.
Jamme 1974 b: 100-101, pl. 25 (facsimile)Jamme, Albert W.F. 1974. Miscellanées d'ancient arabe VII. Washington. 2019/07/22; https://cuislandora.wrlc.org/islandora/object/cuislandora%3A205580#page/1/mode/1up. [Privately printed]
al-Anṣārī 1984 a: 14al-Anṣārī, ʿAbdul Rahman T. 1984. Muwāqiʿ aṯariyya wa ṣuwur min ḥaḍārat al-ʿArab fi l-Mamlaka al-ʿArabiyya as-Saʿūdiyya. Al-ʿUlā (Dedan), al-Ḥiǧr (Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ). Riyāḍ: Qism al-ʾāṯār wa al-matāḥif, ǧāmiʿat al-malik Suʿūd.
Euting 1896Euting, Julius 1896. Tagebuch einer Reise in Inner-Arabien. Leiden: Brill. [2nd edition: 1914]
Müller, David H. 1899Müller, David H. (ed.) 1899. Südarabische Altertümer im Kunsthistorischen Hofmuseum. Vienna: Alfred Hölder. [Im Auftrage und mit Unterstützung des Oberstlämmerer-Amtes seiner K. und K. Apost. Majestät]
Mordtmann 1897Mordtmann, Johannes H. 1897. Beiträge zur minäischen Epigrafik. (Ergänzungshefte zur Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, 12. Semitistische Studien). Weimar: E. Felber.
Müller, Walter W. 1988 bMüller, Walter W. 1988. Altsüdarabische und frühnordarabische Grab-, Sarkophag-, Votiv- und Bauinschriften. Pages 621-640 in Christel Butterweck (ed.). Grab-, Sarg-, Votiv- und Bauinschriften. Religiöse Texte. 4. Otto Kaiser (ed.), Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments. 2. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn.