digital archive for the study of pre-islamic arabian inscriptions


Ancient nameUnknown
Geographical areaMarkha
CoordinatesLatitude: 14° 28' 28"    Longitude: 46° 15' 21.6"    
Coordinates accuracycertain
Type of siteSettlement
StructuresDwelling (indeterminate)
Dwelling (concentrated)
Plot of cultivated land
Light hydraulic structure (ex. canal, well)
Location and toponomyThe site of al-Janâdila is in the region of Wuṣr, 25 km west of the city of Niṣâb, at the confluence of the wâdîs al-Ḥijr and al-Janâdila, on the right bank of the course of the wâdî. The site occupies the south corner of a small basin filled by ancient alluvium.
History of research1980: J. Pirenne: visit and description of the sites of the wâdî Janâdila
1987: French mission in RDPY (dir. Breton): survey of the fortifications of al-Janâdila
General descriptionThis tell is c. 12 metres high; it forms an oval with a maximum length of 210 m, 158 m wide, and with a perimeter of about 540 m.
Overall, about 30 stone buildings are still visible on the surface. The site is fortified. In the western part, the fortified system is an ensemble of juxtaposed house basements, each being 10 m large. On the other hand, the ramparts include casemates linked with curtains. The casemates do not form a continuous line, some are made to reinforce a wall, others can be found between two parallel walls. They measure 6 x 6 m or 7 x 3 m.
The site is surrounded by silt accumulation, either being modern cultivated fields, or the rest of ancient fields. Almost 3 km upstream, J. Pirenne (1980: 218) identified a large boulder covered by ancient South Arabian inscriptions.
J. Pirenne signalled the presence of myrrh trees covering the surrounding mountains.
ChronologyNo data


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Breton 1991: 61-62Breton, Jean-François 1991. A propos de Naǧrân. Pages 59-85 in Études sud-arabes. Recueil offert à Jacques Ryckmans. (Publications de l'Institut Orientaliste de Louvain, 39). Louvain-La-Neuve: Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut Orientaliste.
Breton 1994 c: 86, 142, 145-146, fig. 55Breton, Jean-François 1994. Les fortifications d'Arabie méridionale du 7e au 1er siècle avant notre ère. (Archäologische Berichte aus dem Yemen, 8). Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.
Breton et al. 1998: 128-131, 133-138, 141, fig. 9Breton, Jean-François, Arramond, Jean-Charles, Coque-Delhuille, Brigitte and Gentelle, Pierre 1998. Une vallée aride du Yémen antique. Le wādī Bayhān. Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations.
Pirenne 1980 a: 216-222Pirenne, Jacqueline 1980. Prospection historique dans la région du royaume de Awsan. Raydān, 3: 213-255.