digital archive for the study of pre-islamic arabian inscriptions


Ancient nameṢdn
CoordinatesLatitude: 33° 33' 37.3"    Longitude: 35° 22' 14.8"    
Coordinates accuracycertain
General descriptionIt is placed on a promontory in front of two islands. It is enclosed by two small water courses.
The settlement is populated since the IV millennium BC. The acropolis (Saint Louis castle) was occupied in the second half of the II millennium BC, in the Hellenistic and Roman period.
A capital with double bull protome and a base of column with torus decorated with floreal motif suggest that there was a palace of the Persian governor close to the harbour. An industrial area dedicated to the dyeing of textile was also placed near the harbour. The urban area was bounded by city walls as testified by local coins.
ChronologyIV mill. BC: early populating
677 BC: destroyed by the Assirian king Asarhaddon
VI cent. BC: Persian rule
Archaeological missionsDirection Génerale des Antiquités du Liban - British Museum directed by Claude Doumet-Serhal


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north-west of Magharat Tabloun (Unknown)
west of Ain Hilweh (Unknown)
near Bustan Esh-Sheikh (ʿn Ydll)