DASI

digital archive for the study of pre-islamic arabian inscriptions

Editor: Alessio Agostini; Jean-François Breton; Jérémie Schiettecatte


Site plan
Breton 1998: 270
Image free from copyright

SITE INFORMATION

Ancient nameS²bwt
CountryYemen
Geographical areaShabwa
GovernorateShabwa
KingdomHadramawt
Himyar
CoordinatesLatitude: 15° 22' 8"    Longitude: 47° 1' 30"    
Coordinates accuracycertain
Type of siteSettlement
TribeTribe: Ḥḍrmt
Lineage: Mkrbm
Lineage: S²hrm
Lineage: Ṣdqḏkr
Deitiesʾlmqh
ʿṯtr
ʿṯtr ḏ-Qbḍm
ʿṯtr Yllm S²rqn
bʿl ḏ-Mḥẓy
ḏt-Ḥmym
ḏt-Ḥs³wlm
ḏt-Ṣntm
ḏt Ẓhrn
Hwbs¹
Ḥwl
Rḥmnn
S¹yn
S¹yn ḏ-ʾlm
S²ms¹
Wd
StructuresDwelling (indeterminate)
Dwelling (concentrated)
Dwelling isolated
Quarry
Light hydraulic structure (ex. canal, well)
Large hydraulic structure (ex. dam)
Building with political function
Fortress
Rampart
Small temple
Large temple
Graveyard
Rock inscriptions
LanguageSabaic, Ḥaḍramitic
General descriptionExtension 15 ha ca. The site is located at the conjunction of wādī ʿIrmā and wādī ʾAtf, at the SE limit of Ramlat as-Sabʿatayn, on the Jawl highland. Shabwa has moreover a very decentralized position in respect to the extension of the ancient kingdom of which it was the capital, but it was on the other hand closer to the western heart of ancient South Arabian civilization. It is also encircled at North by schist hills and by limestone and sandstone slopes. The environment was thus very favourable more for its natural resources (e.g. salt mines) than for extensive agricultural exploitation (water courses were poorer in respect to the most western South Arabian sites). Shabwa was furthermore at the centre of several routes, and this determined its essential role in commercial activities. (A. Agostini)
ChronologyThe probes revealed that the site was inhabited at least since the 16th century BC. The site became capital only at the beginning of the historical South Arabian phase (7th century BC) and its most flourishing moment was between the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Traces of fire have been detected in several areas and they should be dated around 1st centuries BC/AD. A most serious sack was suffered during the 3rd century AD, but the site was inhabited at least until the 5th century AD.
Classical sourcesEratosthenes of Cyrene, in Strabo Geogr., 16, 4, 2 (3rd cent. BC): Σάβατα
Pliny the Elder, Nat. Hist. VI, 32, 154-155 ; XII, 30, 52 ; XII, 32, 63 (1st cent. AD): Sabbatha/Sabota
Periplus Maris Erythraei § 27 (1st cent. AD): Σαυβαθά
Claudius Ptolemy, Geogr. 6.7.38 (2nd cent. AD) : Σάββαθα
Identification1936: H. St.J. Philby
Archaeological missions1938 R.A.B. Hamilton (UK)
1974/2002 MAFRY (France) [1974-78 dir. J. Pirenne – since 1978 dir. J-F. Breton]

MONUMENTS

[By A. Agostini; revised by J.-F. Breton in 2021] Shabwa is the only South Arabian city to have a double enclosure of walls. The inner one, some 1585 m long, consist of 75 slightly prominent towers and 71 curtains. This wall, despite its successive phases of construction, presents a great technical unit. The best preserved sections are to the W, with four gates; the eastern part, mainly destroyed, has a possible fifth gate. The outer ring has two separate walls and several specific devices. First is a 2160 m long pebble with mud mortar wall following the hilltop. The second wall to the E and S, 685 m long, encircles a citadel. The outer ring delimits a large flat area – named al-Sabkha, because of its salt mines – with five gates. It was probably used in antiquity as a stop-over area for camel caravans, as it has neither dwellings nor storerooms.

  • photoPlan of the city wall
  • photoThe city wall. Western sector
[By A. Agostini] This was probably the main temple of the town and it lays at the end of the central road which divides the settlement in two parts and running N-S (at the other extremity the Palace S²qr is standing, see here below). It is leaning against the al-ʿAqab hill, at the SE end of the site, and this should have given a considerable prominence and visibility to the building. The main body is not preserved, and the only visible structure is the monumental staircase in stone which leads to a four-columned propylon. In this area a huge pedestal was intended to hold a colossal human statue, considered the size of the footprints on it, since the statue (probably in bronze) is not preserved. Smaller pedestals for other statues were situated in front of each column. Behind the portico there was a narrow terrace closed by a wall which could be the foundation for the main temple structure. The lower terrace was also housing big bronze statues (probably life-sized horses). The building technique is very refined, using ashlar masonry and partly faced with polished stone slabs. The ruins should be dated to the last phase of the structure, thus to the 2nd – 3rd centuries AD.

  • photoTemple of S¹yn
  • photoTemple of S¹yn, reconstruction
[By A. Agostini] Following the typical Hadramitic model, the temple extra muros was erected at the flank of a hill. This is Qārāt al-Hadīda which is reachable through a tortuous passageway at the western limit of the settlement. The building is laying upon a large terrace formed by choppers and mortar. Its plan has a trapezoidal shape and measures 14.5 x 8 m. The inner temple consists of an unique hall with only one lateral bench, the roof was probably sustained by wood pillars. The divinity to whom the building was dedicated is not known.

  • photoTemple extra-muros
[By A. Agostini; revised by J.-F. Breton in 2021] The main building of Shabwa is located close to the western gate (n° 3). It has been identified by some inscriptions as the royal palace S²qr. It consists of two adjoining buildings. The central one, to the S (building A), 22.90 m (western façade) by 19.80 m, stands on a massive podium of a refined technique and ashlar masonry. A long corridor divides the whole floor in two main lateral aisles, with long and narrow rooms. The portion next to the entrance has similar rooms but perpendicular in respect to the latter. The second building (B), to the N, some 39.20 m long by 31.20 m large, U-shaped, opens on a courtyard with porticoes. The main entrance with its monumental staircase is located on the eastern part facing the city. This palace was burned for the first time in 225-230 AD, and rebuilt some years later. In Building B, a second floor was erected with adorned windows and paintings. Capitals were positioned above the pillars and fully decorated with vegetal and animal motifs, in particular griffins and horned lions. At the end of the 3rd century and during the 4th century AD, the palace lost its importance and was used only for the himyarite garrison. Its final destruction by fire is supposed to have occurred during the 5th century. Its huge layers of ashes delivered hundreds of wooden pieces, thus allowing some restitutions of its floors. In these layers a number of bronze pieces, ivories, glasses, imported pottery, etc. were also found.

  • photoShabwa. General view of the palace
  • photoGeneral plan of the palace
  • photoThe Palace: the eastern façade
  • photoThe Palace: the western façade
  • photoRoyal Palace. Decorated Capital
[By A. Agostini] The two flanks of hills Qārat al-Ghirān and al-Burayk served as necropolis. They seems to be away from the principal routes of the town and from the other sanctuaries so far detected. The tombs have been realized inside the natural rocks, but architectural interventions sometimes enriched the entrance. This is the case of Tomb 1 which has a vestibule whose lateral sides are framed by two walls divided by wood beams and decorated by stone rectangular panels with hollows and red paint. Some stairs allow the access to a subterranean chamber, followed by another one further below while multiple niches (3 to 5) have been organized at their sides. They probably served as family tombs and revealed traces of subsequent reuses, even if the vast majority of them have been pillaged in later times. This model of hypogean tombs seems particularly spread in this region.

  • photoHypogean tombs
[By A. Agostini; revised by J.-F. Breton in 2021] Inside the western part of the city some 120 stone buildings have been recorded. They are scattered on both sides of the main city street without any planning. It has been supposed that the town did not have specialized areas, the dwellings were in fact concentrated more according to the owner families or tribes than according to their functionality. Archaeological excavations demonstrate that all these stone platforms were topped by a vertical wooden frame. The long-beams and cross pieces were carefully interlocked so as to construct a regular vertical frame, about 1.50 m high, and two such frames, one on top of each other, supported a floor at a height of 3.00 m. Whatever the number of floors, the house would be like a tower-house whose main function was the safety of its inhabitants. By contrast, the temples generally consist of a main cella (or one hypostyle hall and one or sometimes three cellae). Similar stone platforms have been excavated at Timnaʿ, and their identification raises the question of the term “bayt”: house or temples.

  • photoA wooden building

MAP

Your browser doesn't support Google Maps or Javascript is turned off.

RELATED SITES

near al-ʿOqm (Unknown)
near Shiʿb al-Layl (Unknown)
near ʿAqaba Fuṭra (Unknown)
west of ʿUqayba (Unknown)
near al-ʿUqla (ʾnwdm)

RELATED MATERIAL

Epigraphs in CSAI
Objects in CSAI

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Badre 1992Badre, Leila 1992. Le sondage stratigraphique de Shabwa 1976-1981. Pages 229-314 in Jean-François Breton (ed.). Rapports préliminaires. Jean-François Breton (ed.), Fouilles de Shabwa. 2. (Publication hors série, Institut Français d'Archéologie du Proche-Orient, 19). Paris: Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner. [Extrait de "Syria" , tome 68]
Beeston 1947Beeston, Alfred F.L. 1947. Two Shabwa Inscriptions. Le Muséon, 60: 51-55.
Beeston 1976 b: 47-48Beeston, Alfred F.L. 1976. Warfare in ancient South Arabian (2nd.-3rd. centuries A.D.). Qahtan. Studies in Old Arabian Epigraphy. 3. London: Luzac and Co.
Bessac 1998 bBessac, Jean-Claude 1998. Le travail de la pierre à Shabwa. Pages 231-282 in Jean-François Breton (ed.). Architecture et techniques de construction. Jean-François Breton (ed.), Fouilles de Shabwa. 3. (Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, 154). Beirut: Institut Français d'Archéologie du Proche Orient.
Bowen 1958 a: 77-78Bowen, Richard LeBaron 1958. Irrigation in ancient Qatabân (Beiḥân). Pages 43-132 in Richard LeBaron Bowen and Frank P. Albright (eds). Archaeological Discoveries in South Arabia. With foreword by Wendell Phillips. (Publications of the American Foundation for the Study of Man, 2). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Breton 1978Breton, Jean-François 1978. Urbanisme et architecture à Shabwa. Raydān, 1: 143-147.
Breton 1980 bBreton, Jean-François 1980. Rapport sur une mission archéologique dans le wâdî Ḥaḍramawt (Yémen du Sud) en 1979. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres: 57-80.
Breton 1987Breton, Jean-François 1987. Shabwa, capitale antique du Ḥaḍramawt. Journal Asiatique, 275/1-2: 13-34.
Breton 1992 cBreton, Jean-François 1992. Le château royal de Shabwa: notes d'histoire. Pages 209-227 in Jean-François Breton (ed.). Rapports préliminaires. Jean-François Breton (ed.), Fouilles de Shabwa. 2. (Publication hors série, Institut Français d'Archéologie du Proche-Orient, 19). Paris: Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner. [Extrait de "Syria" , tome 68]
Breton 1992 dBreton, Jean-François 1992. Le site et la ville de Shabwa. Pages 59-75 in Jean-François Breton (ed.). Rapports préliminaires. Jean-François Breton (ed.), Fouilles de Shabwa. 2. (Publication hors série, Institut Français d'Archéologie du Proche-Orient, 19). Paris: Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner. [Extrait de "Syria" , tome 68]
Breton 1994 cBreton, Jean-François 1994. Les fortifications d'Arabie méridionale du 7e au 1er siècle avant notre ère. (Archäologische Berichte aus dem Yemen, 8). Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.
Breton 1998Breton, Jean-François (ed.) 1998. Architecture et techniques de construction. Jean-François Breton (ed.), Fouilles de Shabwa. 3. (Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, 154). Beirut: Institut Français d'Archéologie du Proche Orient.
Breton 2000 aBreton, Jean-François 2000. Shabwa (Yémen). Traditions sémitiques, influences extériores (III s. av. - III s. ap. J.-C.). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 2: 849-882.
Breton 2001 cBreton, Jean-François 2001. Recherches archéologiques dans la région de Shabwa. Orient Express, 2001/2: 37-38.
Breton 2003Breton, Jean-François 2003. Preliminary notes on the development of Shabwa. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 33: 199-214.
Breton 2013Breton, Jean-François 2013. Le temple de Siyān à Shabwa. Problèmes d'identification. Raydān, 8: 25-44.
Breton 2016Breton, Jean-François 2016. Shabwa, capitale du royaume du Hadramawt. Pages 137-144 in Guillame Charloux and Jérémie Schiettecatte (eds). Yémen. Terre d’archéologie. Paris: Geuthner.
Breton 2019Breton, Jean-François 2019. Le sac de Shabwa par les Sabéens vers 225-230. Pages 85-110 in Jean-François Breton and François Villeneuve (eds). La guerre en Arabie antique. Actes des 22° Rencontres Sabéennes. Paris, 21-23 juin 2018. With foreword by Mounir Arbach. Paris: Geuthner.
Breton 2020 aBreton, Jean-François 2020. Shabwa, capitale de l'antique Hadramawt. 2021/05/10; https://archeologie.culture.fr/shabwa/fr.
Breton, Audouin and Seigne 1981Breton, Jean-François, Audouin, Rémy and Seigne, Jacques 1981. Rapport préliminaire sur la fouille du "Château Royal" de Šabwa (1980-1981). Raydān, 4: 163-191.
Breton et al. 1980Breton, Jean-François, Badre, Leila, Audouin, Rémy and Seigne, Jacques 1980. Wādī Ḥaḍramawt. Prospections 1978-1979. Aden: Centre Culturel et de Recherches Archéologiques.
Breton et al. 1990-2009Breton, Jean-François (ed.) 1990-2009. Fouilles de Shabwa. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner / Beirut: IFAPO.
Breton et al. 2010Breton, Jean-François, Darles, Christian, Roux, Jean-Claude and Cammas, Cécilia 2010. Une nouvelle stratigraphie à Shabwa, capitale du royaume antique du Ḥaḍramawt (Yémen), (XIIIe siècle av. n. è. - IVe siècle de n. è.). Arabia. Revue de Sabéologie, 4: 11-66, 165-204.
Breton and Roux 2005Breton, Jean-François and Roux, Jean-Claude 2005. Preliminary report on new excavations in Shabwa. Pages 95-113 in Amida Sholan, Sabina Antonini and Mounir Arbach (eds). Sabaean Studies (Dirāsāt Sabaʾiyya). Archaeological, epigraphical and historical studies in honour of Yūsuf M. ʿAbdallāh, Alessandro de Maigret, Christian J. Robin on the occasion of their sixtieth birthdays. Naples: Università degli studi di Napoli l'Orientale. [University of Ṣanʿāʾ; Yemeni-Italian Centre for Archeological Reserches Ṣanʿāʾ; Centre français d'archéologie et de sciences sociales de Ṣanʿāʾ]
Brown and Beeston 1954Brown, W.L. and Beeston, Alfred F.L. 1954. Sculptures and Inscriptions from Shabwa. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 43-62.
Calvet 1988Calvet, Yves 1988. Fouilles françaises de Shabwa (Yémen du Sud), la céramique importée. Raydān, 5: 53-69.
Darles 1992Darles, Christian 1992. L'architecture civile à Shabwa. Pages 78-110 in Jean-François Breton (ed.). Rapports préliminaires. Jean-François Breton (ed.), Fouilles de Shabwa. 2. (Publication hors série, Institut Français d'Archéologie du Proche-Orient, 19). Paris: Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner. [Extrait de "Syria" , tome 68]
Darles 1998Darles, Christian 1998. Le sanctuaire d'Al-ʿUqla. Pages 163-169 in Jean-François Breton (ed.). Architecture et techniques de construction. Jean-François Breton (ed.), Fouilles de Shabwa. 3. (Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, 154). Beirut: Institut Français d'Archéologie du Proche Orient.
Darles 1998 aDarles, Christian 1998. Étude typologique de l'architecture civile intra-muros. Pages 3-25 in Jean-François Breton (ed.). Architecture et techniques de construction. Jean-François Breton (ed.), Fouilles de Shabwa. 3. (Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, 154). Beirut: Institut Français d'Archéologie du Proche Orient.
Darles 2008 aDarles, Christian 2008. Derniers résultats, nouvelles datations et nouvelles données sur les fortifications de Shabwa (Ḥaḍramawt). Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 38: 141-152.
Darles 2008 bDarles, Christian. Les fortifications antiques de Shabwa (Hadhramawt-Yémen) : analyse structurelle et approches comparatives. (PhD, Université de Toulouse II).
Darles 2013Darles, Christian 2013. Les portes fortifiées de Shabwa, analyse et comparaisons. Raydān, 8: 73-89.
Darles 2019Darles, Christian 2019. Fouilles de Shabwa V. Les fortifications. (Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, 216). Beyrouth: Presses de l’Ifpo.
Doe 1971: 228-233Doe, D. Brian 1971. Southern Arabia. London: Thames and Hudson.
Doe 1983: 136-141Doe, D. Brian 1983. Monuments of South Arabia. (Arabia past and present, 12). Naples: The Falcon Press / Cambridge: The Oleander press.
Doe 1984Doe, D. Brian 1984. Architectural refinements and measure in early South Arabian buildings. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 14: 21-31.
Edens and Wilkinson 1998: 84-85Edens, Christopher and Wilkinson, Tony J. 1998. Southwest Arabia during the Holocene: recent archaeological developments. Journal of World Prehistory, 12/1: 55-119.
Egels 2016Egels, Y 2016. Mission impossible au royaume de Sabaʾ. Récit d'un géographe à Shabwa en 1974-1975. Pages 131-136 in Guillame Charloux and Jérémie Schiettecatte (eds). Yémen. Terre d’archéologie. Paris: Geuthner.
Frantsouzoff 2001 aFrantsouzoff, Serguei A. 2001. Epigraphic evidence for the cult of the god Sīn at Raybūn and Shabwa. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 31: 59-67.
Gajda 2009: 203-204Gajda, Iwona 2009. Le royaume de Ḥimyar à l'epoque monothéiste. L’histoire de l’Arabie du Sud ancienne de la fin du IV° siècle de l’ère chrétienne jusqu’à l’avénement de l’islam. (Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres, Tome 40). Paris: Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres.
al-Garoo 1986: 300-302al-Garoo, Asmahan 1986. Les antiquités du Yémen dans l'œuvre de al-Hamdânī. (PhD, Université Paris I).
Gentelle 1991Gentelle, Pierre 1991. Les irrigations antiques à Shabwa. Syria, 68: 5-54.
Hamilton 1942Hamilton, R.A.B. 1942. Six weeks in Shabwa. Geographical Journal, 100: 107-123.
Harding 1964: 37-39, pl. 41Harding, G. Lankester 1964. Archaeology in the Aden Protectorates. London: H.M. Stationary Off.
al-Ḥiwālī 1967 a: 14al-Ḥiwālī, Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-Akwaʿ 1967. Kitāb al-Iklīl li-lisān al-Yaman Abī Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad ibn Yaʿqūb al-Hamdānī, al-ǧuz' al-ṯānī. Cairo.
al-Ḥiwālī 1967 b: 157al-Ḥiwālī, Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-Akwaʿ 1967. Kitāb al-Iklīl li-lisān al-Yaman Abī Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad ibn Yaʿqūb al-Hamdānī, al-ǧuzʾ al-ṯāmin. Cairo.
al-Ḥiwālī 1974: 175, 191, 206al-Ḥiwālī, Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-Akwaʿ 1974. Ṣifa ǧazirat al-ʿArab, taʾlīf Lisān al-Yaman al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad al-Hamdānī. Riyāḍ: Manšūrāt Dār al-Yamāma li-l-baḥṯ wa-l-taraǧama wa-l-našr.
Ingrams 1945Ingrams, Harold 1945. From Cana (Husn Ghorab) to Sabbatha (Shabwa): the South Arabian Incense Road. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 169-185.
Inizan and Ortlieb 1987Inizan, Marie-Louise and Ortlieb, Luc 1987. Préhistoire dans la région de Shabwa au Yemen du Sud (R.D.P. Yemen). Paléorient, 13/1: 5-22.
Loreto 2011: 157-165, 202-216Loreto, Romolo 2011. L’architettura domestica e i Palazzi Reali di epoca sud arabica nello Yemen pre-islamico (VII sec. a.C. – VI sec. d.C.). With foreword by Alessandro de Maigret. (Collana di Ateneo Dissertationes, 7). Naples: Università degli studi di Napoli “L’Orientale”.
de Maigret 2002: 59-63de Maigret, Alessandro 2002. Arabia Felix. An exploration of the Archaeological history of Yemen. London: Stacey International.
de Maigret 2005 bde Maigret, Alessandro 2005. Some Reflections on the South Arabian bayt. Archäologische Berichte aus dem Yemen, 10: 101-110.
Maraqten 1996Maraqten, Mohammed 1996. An inscribed amulet from Shabwa. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 7/1: 88-94.
Philby 1939: 78-123Philby, Harry St John B. 1939. Sheba's Daughters. Being a record of travel in Southern Arabia. London: Methuen and Co.
Pirenne 1975 aPirenne, Jacqueline 1975. Première mission archéologique française au Hadramout (Yémen du Sud). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres: 261-279.
Pirenne 1976Pirenne, Jacqueline 1976. Deuxième mission archéologique française au Hadramout (Yémen du Sud). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres: 412-426.
Pirenne 1978Pirenne, Jacqueline 1978. Ce que trois campagnes de fouilles nous ont déjà appris sur Shabwa capitale du Ḥaḍramout antique. Raydān, 1: 125-142.
Pirenne 1990Pirenne, Jacqueline 1990. Les témoins écrit de la région de Shabwa et l'histoire. Jean-François Breton (ed.), Fouilles de Shabwa. 1. (Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, 134). Paris: Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner. [Institut français d'Archéologie du Proche-Orient]
Robin 1992 bRobin, Christian J. 1992. Review of Pirenne, Jacqueline 1990. Les témoins écrit de la région de Shabwa et l'histoire. Jean-François Breton (ed.), Fouilles de Shabwa. 1. (Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, 134). Paris: Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner. [Institut français d'Archéologie du Proche-Orient]. Bulletin critique des Annales Islamologiques, 9: 205-213.
Robin and Frantsouzoff 1999Robin, Christian J. and Frantsouzoff, Serguei A. 1999. Une inscription ḥaḍramawtique provenant du temple de Siyān dhū-Alīm à Shabwa (Yémen). Semitica, 49: 155-160.
Robin and Vogt 1997: 112-114, 146Robin, Christian J. and Vogt, Burkhard (eds) 1997. Yémen, au pays de la reine de Saba. Exposition présentée à l'Institut du monde arabe du 25 octobre 1997 au 28 février 1998. Paris: Flammarion, Institut du Monde Arabe.
Schiettecatte 2009: 252-258Schiettecatte, Jérémie 2009. Shabwa, Maʾrib et Ṣanʿāʾ. Le devenir des capitales sudarabiques à la veille de l’islam. Pages 251-281 in Jérémie Schiettecatte and Christian J. Robin (eds). L'Arabie à la veille de l'Islam. Bilan clinique. (Orient & Méditerranée, 3). Paris: De Boccard. [Table ronde tenue au Collège de France (Paris) les 28 et 29 août 2006 dans le cadre du projet de l'Agence nationale de la recherche « de l'Antiquité tardive à l'Islam »]
Schiettecatte 2011: 188-195Schiettecatte, Jérémie 2011. D'Aden à Zafar. Villes d'Arabie du Sud préislamique. (Orient et Méditerranée, 6). Paris: de Boccard.
Seigne 1992Seigne, Jacques 1992. Le château royal de Shabwa. Architecture, techniques de costruction et restitutions. Pages 111-166 in Jean-François Breton (ed.). Rapports préliminaires. Jean-François Breton (ed.), Fouilles de Shabwa. 2. (Publication hors série, Institut Français d'Archéologie du Proche-Orient, 19). Paris: Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner. [Extrait de "Syria" , tome 68]
al-Sheiba 1987: 36al-Sheiba, Abdullah Hassan 1987. Die Ortsnamen in den altsüdarabischen Inschriften (mit dem Versuch ihrer Identifizierung und lokalisierung). Archäologische Berichte aus dem Yemen, 4: 1-62.
Sprenger 1875Sprenger, Aloys 1875. Die Alte Geographie Arabiens als Grundlage der Entwicklungsgeschichte des Semitismus. Bern: Commissionsverlag von Huber & Comp.
Wissmann 1964 aWissmann, Hermann von 1964. Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Alt-Südarabien. Sammlung Eduard Glaser. 3. (Sitzungsberichte der Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse, 246). Vienna: Böhlaus.
Wissmann 1964 bWissmann, Hermann von 1964. Ḥimyar, ancient history. Le Muséon, 77: 429-497.
Wissmann and Höfner 1952: 106-122Wissmann, Hermann von and Höfner, Maria 1952. Beiträge zur historischen Geographie des vorislamischen Südarabien. (Abhandlungen der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse, 4). Mainz: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur / Wiesbaden: Steiner.