Corpus of South Arabian Inscriptions

By kind permission of J.F. Breton


LanguageAncient South Arabian » Qatabanic » Marginal Qatabanic
AlphabetAncient South Arabian
Script typologyMonumental writing
Writing techniqueIncision
Textual typologyLegal text


   1  Ġlbm [... ...]yb bn Dws¹m bn Qs³mm ṣyr w-bqr w-grb w-bql w-s¹qḥ kl ʾs¹rr-s¹ w-grwb-s¹
   2  S²ʿbn w-Lgʾm w-S¹rʿ w-Yfʿ w-kl ʾbʾr-s¹m w-ṯqwl-s¹m w-mʾtw-s¹m w-mbny-s¹m w-grb w-bq—
   3  l w-rʾb b-s¹r-s¹ ḏ-Rbḍt w-mlgʾ-s¹ nḥql ((n-ḥql))ṯmnt ʾʾlfm bqlm l-s¹ w-l wld-s¹ w-ḏ-ʿḏr-
   4  s¹ b-ʾmr w-mqm ʿṯtr S²rqn w-ʿm ḏ-Dwnm w-Ns¹wr w-ʾl Fḫr w-b-rdʾ S²ms¹-s¹ w-b-rdʾ w-ʾḫ—
   5  yl ʾdm bn Qs³mm kl s²ʿbn ḏ-Mḥrḍw w-Ms²rqytn w-rṯd Ġlbm ḏtn ʾs¹ṭrn ʿṯtr S²—
   6  rqn w-ʿm w-Ns¹wr w-ʾl Fḫr bn kl ḫs³s³m w-ḫblm w-s³nḥm w-ms¹fʾym w-ms¹nkrm bn ʾbrṯ-s¹m



   1  Ġlbm ... yb son of Dws¹m of Qs³mm has planted and cultivated and terraced and ploughed and completed (the work for) all his fields and terraces
   2  S²ʿbn and Lgʾm and S¹rʿ and Yfʿ and all their wells and connected buildings and their canals and their buildings and he terraced and brought under
   3  cultivation and took possession in his valley ḏ-Rbḍt and in his territory, in particular eight thousand parts for himself and his sons and his descendants;
   4  according to the order and the rule of ʿṯtr S²rqn and ʿm ḏ-Dwnm and Ns¹wr and ʾl Fḫr and with the help of S²ms¹ and with the help and the power
   5  of the people of Qs³mm all the tribes ḏ-Mḥrḍw and Ms²rqytn. Ġlbm placed these inscriptions under the protection of ʿṯtr
   6  S²rqn and ʿm and Ns¹wr and ʾl Fḫr against all those who damage and destroy and harm and move from their place.
3Recently for nḥql a translation 'unless' has been suggested.
Avanzini 2004 a: 525-526Avanzini, Alessandra 2004. Corpus of South Arabian Inscriptions I-III. Qatabanic, Marginal Qatabanic, Awsanite Inscriptions. (Arabia Antica, 2). Pisa: Edizioni Plus-Università di Pisa.


Support typeRock inscription
Link to object record


Origin and provenance
Modern siteJabal Birkha
Ancient siteUnknown
Geographical areaWādī Ḍura
FoundIn situ
Archaeological contextAgricultural irrigation context
Link to site record


The dedicant, member of the family Qs³mm, states the construction of irrigation structures accomplished in his territories, of which then he declares the acquisition for him and his descendants, specifying the size of the fields. These activities are ratified by the god ʿṯtr S²rqn, together with ʿm ḏ-Dwnm, Ns¹wr, ʾl Fḫr and S²ms¹.


Jamme 1972: 62-63, pl. 16 (facsimile)Jamme, Albert W.F. 1972. Miscellanées d'ancient arabe III. Washington. 2019/07/23; https://cuislandora.wrlc.org/islandora/object/cuislandora%3A206336#page/1/mode/1up. [Privately printed]